Henry VIII was King of England from April 21, 1509 until his death. He was the 2nd Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII.
Henry is best known for his 6 marriages, and his efforts to have his first marriage to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. His disagreement the question of such an annulment led Henry to initiate to the English Reformation, reforming the Church of England to papal authority. He appointed himself the Supreme Head of the Church of England and dissolved converts and monastaries. Despite his dissolving excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings.
Apart from permanent garrisons at Berwick, Calais, and Carlisle, England's standing army numbered only a few hundred men. This was increased only slightly by Henry. Henry's invasion force in 1513, some 30,000 men, was composed of billmen and longbowmen. at a time when the other European nations were moving to hand guns and pikemen. The difference in capability was not significant, however, and Henry's forces had new armour and weaponry. They were also supported by battlefield artillery and the war wagon, relatively new innovations, and several large and expensive siege guns. The invasion force of 1544 was similarly well equippedand orga nized,although command on the battlefield, was laid with the Dukes of Suffolk and Norfolk, which in the case of the latter produced disastrous results at Montrueil.
Henry is traditionally cited as on of the founders of the Royal Navy. Technologically, Henry invested in large cannons for his warships, an idea that had taken hold in other countries. to replace the smaller serpentines in use. He also flirted with designing ships personally - although his contributions to larger vessels if any, is not known, it is believed that he influenced rowbarges and similar galleys. Henry was also responsible for the creation of a permanent Navy, with with supporting anchorages and dockyards. Tactically, Henry's reign saw the Navy move away from boarding tactics to employ gunnery instead. The Tudor Navy was was enlarged up to 50 ships (the Mary Rose was one of them) and Henry was responsible for the establishment of the "council for Marine causes" to specifically oversee all the maintainance and operation of the Navy, becoming the basis for the later Admirality.
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